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The clearance rate was The hospital bill varied from 1. There were controls collected for the 63 subjects, As sex of the animal was a possible confounding factor for the sales price, this was controlled for in the statistical analysis. Of the controls, were reported sold, giving a clearance rate of In the study population we demonstrated that, for Thoroughbred horses that are presented to public auction, there is no price disadvantage of having been treated in a hospital prior to age days.

This population consisted of foals with a variety of disease conditions. As with the majority of veterinary studies, some foals that would have been eligible for inclusion were subjected to euthanasia as a result of the combination of prognosis and economics of treatment.

It is possible that a minority of these animals might have survived to be presented at the sales and that this may therefore introduce some bias into the results. There are many factors that influence the price achieved at public auction for Thoroughbred horses. These might include the extended pedigree of the horse, including race and reproductive performance of relatives, conformation, stride, physical appearance, any declared or observed medical problems with the animal, the prevailing economic conditions, the sex of the horse, age, the sale the horse is presented at, the time of day the horse is presented at the sale, the proximity of the horse to popular lots within the catalogue and the reputation of the consignors and their relationship to major purchasers.

The stallion of the foal influences the price greatly based on current performance and sales prices of their offspring and near relatives.

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This shows that the hospital bill usually represents a relatively minor portion of the production costs of a foal, especially in compared to the stallion fee. Therefore, in light of the results of this study showing no effect on sales price, it may often be economically worthwhile for owners to invest in hospital treatment of their foals when required.

Disease severe enough to warrant hospitalisation during the first days of life might have affected the conformation, walk, physical appearance and ongoing medical conditions of the animal and hence its value at public auction. With this in mind, we elected to use controls that appeared in the same microcosm of the same sale as the subject, to reduce the potential confounding factors of the prevailing economic conditions, the sale, the time of day and the proximity to popular lots. We chose 6 controls for each subject to try to minimise the effects of a particularly good or poor horse among the controls for a particular animal.

We had no background information on the control horses, and it is possible that a minor percentage of them were themselves hospitalised as foals. This was another rationale for choosing 6 controls for each subject: to minimise the effects of this possibility. One risk associated with our method of selecting controls is that subjects might have gone to a less good sale than they were destined to, had they not had a disease that required hospitalisation.

One possible test of this risk is to compare the stallion fees of subjects and controls. It would be expected that, if subjects were sent to less premium public auctions than they might have been originally destined for, they would have a higher mean stallion fee than those of their control horses in the same sales.

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An alternative approach to selecting controls would have been to use full and half siblings of the subjects that were also presented to public auction. Subjects in this study presented for sale during — This was a time of great worldwide economic turmoil and this was reflected in large changes in average prices and clearance rates at public Thoroughbred auctions.

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Siblings, if presented for sale at the same age, are necessarily presented in a different year. Many of the subjects had only one or 2 siblings that had presented at public auction and some had none.

This precluded controlling for the average, median and clearance rate at each sale using a large number of controls for each subject. Some of the foals presented to the hospital are bred to race for their breeders and no data were available to determine whether the foals presented to the hospital were destined for the sales or for racing.

Horses can also be sold privately or at sales in countries that are not included in the Racing Post database, and therefore would not be included in the dataset. Many horses bred for National Hunt racing are not presented for sale until they are aged 3 or 4 years. Horses treated as foals might have retarded growth, which means that they are less well developed than their peers at the time of the foal sales.

However, we did not find that animals presented to the foal sales sold, were bought in or were passed at a lower price than their controls. Clinical observation suggests that foals that are small can catch up with their peers by the time they are yearlings.

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It is therefore possible that some of the subjects were originally intended for the foal sales but were held back for the yearling sales. We cannot test this theory from the data collected.

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In conclusion, Thoroughbred horses treated in this hospital as foals that are presented for public auction do not sell for lower prices than controls. Further study may be required to determine whether hospital treatment in general has any impact on sales performance.

Volume 44 , Issue s The full text of this article hosted at iucr. A wallpaper or background also known as a desktop wallpaper, desktop background, desktop picture or desktop image on computers is a digital image photo, drawing etc. On a computer it is usually for the desktop, while on a mobile phone it is usually the background for the 'home' or 'idle' screen.

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Though most devices come with a default picture, users can usually change it to custom files of their choosing. A mobile wallpaper is a computer wallpaper sized to fit a mobile device such as a mobile phone, personal digital assistant or digital audio player. The height is often greater than or equal to the width. Wallpapers can typically be downloaded at no cost from various websites for modern phones such as those running Android, iOS, or Windows Phone operating systems.

Modern smartphones allow users to use photos from the web; or photographs captured with a phone's camera can be set as a wallpaper. She was the first 3-year-old filly to beat older males on the track since Busher in She won the love of the public as few horses have in recent memory; her races brought people to the track in their thousands, crowds populated both by those in awe of her racing ability and those charmed by a female so dominating the racing landscape.

Her distinctive face made her instantly recognizable. Jackson died last April, but Stonestreet Stables carries on under the stewardship of Banke, in the breeding shed and on the race track.

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The new foal is co-owned by Stonestreet and McCormick. Curlin, too, won the Preakness, in , after finishing third in the Kentucky Derby and before finishing second by a head to another sensational filly, Rags to Riches in the Belmont.

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